The State of Qatar has a desert climate with a hot summer and a relatively mild winter. In the summer the temperature ranges between 25°C and 45°C with high humidity. There is some rainfall in winter but on the average does not exceed 75.2mm annually.
Temperatures from May to September are frequently in the low 40s C with high humidity common in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. In the cities of Fujairah and Khor Fakkan the climate is more pleasant and also in the mountains above Ras al-Khaimah. During the winter, the entire country generally experiences very good weather though it is often quite windy. Cold weather is not unknown and in the desert around Al-Ain, temperatures sometimes drop as low as 10°C. Winter in the inland desert is usually pleasantly brisk.
The State of Qatar is situated half-way along the west coast of the Arabian Gulf, east of the Arabian peninsula. It is itself a peninsula that extends northward covering an area of 11,437 sq km.
Its territory includes a number of islands in the waters around it. The most well-known of these are the Hawar Islands, Halul which is the export terminal for the offshore oil fields and others.
The people of Qatar are primarily of Arab descent, reflecting the country's close proximity to the Arabian peninsula and its ties of history, language and religion with the other Gulf states. Arab tribes who migrated to the area in the 18th century form the basis of the population. Most of the present inhabitants of Qatar live in the capital, Doha, but there are a fair number living in the towns and villages of Wakrah, Dukhan, Umm Said, Al-Khor and Madinat Shamal.
Only 25% of the population of Qatar is Qatari. The remainder is foreign, overwhelmingly Pakistani. Most Qataris are of Arab ancestry, though there are a number of families of Persian origin.