Oman is hot and dry with temperatures from 18°C to 34°C (64°F to 93°F). The average rainfall in the country ranges from 76 to 102mm (3 to 4in) annually. However, there are climactic variations: in the south along the coast, coconuts are grown while in the northern highlands, roses and grapes are produced. Summers are extremely hot, with coastal temperatures reaching 46° C (115° F) and those in the interior even higher.
The winters are quite warm and the average annual temperature in Muscat is 29° C (84° F). The climate of the coastal plain and mountains of Dhofar is moderated by the monsoons that deposit annually about 760 mm (about 30 in) of rain on the south side of the mountains and about 150 mm (about 6 in) along the coast.
Parts of the Hajar Mountains receive up to 460 mm of rains (18 in), while Muscat receives less than 100 mm (4 in). Flash floods can take place when sudden and heavy rains run off the mountains towards the valleys. In Oman's interior summer winds cause large sandstorms which in turns cause periodic droughts. Monsoon winds can endanger shipping in the south.